This site provides documentation for the GLOBIOM model, links to GLOBIOM resources, and helps you find your way in the model’s GAMS code. GAMS script descriptions and dependency links that match the Trunk version of the GLOBIOM model are provided.


The Global Biosphere Management Model (GLOBIOM) has been developed and used by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) since the late 2000s. The partial-equilibrium model represents various land use-based activities, including agriculture, forestry and bioenergy sectors. The model is built following a bottom-up setting based on detailed grid-cell information, providing the biophysical and technical cost information. This detailed structure allows a rich set of environmental parameters to be taken into account. Its spatial equilibrium modelling approach represents bilateral trade based on cost competitiveness. The model was initially developed for impact assessment of climate change mitigation policies in land-based sectors, including biofuels, and nowadays is also increasingly being implemented for agricultural and timber markets foresight, and economic impact analysis of climate change and adaptation, and a wide range of sustainable development goals.

How GLOBIOM works

GLOBIOM’s analytical process captures the multiple interrelationships between the different systems involved in provision of agricultural and forestry products, for example, population dynamics, ecosystems, technology, and climate.

GLOBIOM is a global, recursively dynamic, and partial equilibrium model. It integrates the agricultural, bioenergy, and forestry sectors and draws on comprehensive socioeconomic and geospatial data. It accounts for the 18 most globally important crops, a range of livestock production activities, forestry commodities, first- and second-generation bioenergy, and water. Production is spatially explicit and takes into account land, management, and weather characteristics.


The market equilibrium is solved by maximizing the sum of producer and consumer surplus subject to resource, technological, and political constraints. Using the year 2000 as the baseline, GLOBIOM simulates demand and supply quantities, bilateral trade flows, and prices for commodities and natural resources at 10-year-step intervals up to 2050. This gives planners a basis for setting future land use and, more importantly, for identifying possible shortfalls in food and biomass supplies.

Model documentation

The model documentation provides a detailed description of the main features of the GLOBIOM model, as present in the standard global version.

Model code

See the Source Tree to learn how the GLOBIOM code is structured, and what the various code files do.

An Open Source version of GLOBIOM is under preparation. External collaborators are given access to an open-source pre-release version of GLOBIOM hosted on GitHub in this repository.


The GLOBIOM wiki provides background and guidelines for GLOBIOM development with an IIASA-specific focus. The GitHub issue tracker and project boards support collaborative development for team members. These links work if you are signed in to GitHub and are a member of the iiasa/GLOBIOM GitHub team, or have been given collaborator access.