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Calculates a SpatRaster of locally limiting factors from a given projected model. To calculate this first the spartial effect of each individual covariate in the model is calculated.

The effect is estimated as that variable most responsible for decreasing suitability at that cell. The decrease in suitability is calculated, for each predictor in turn, relative to thesuitability that would be achieved if that predictor took the value equal to the mean The predictor associated with the largest decrease in suitability is the most limiting factor.


limiting(mod, plot = TRUE)

# S4 method for ANY
limiting(mod, plot = TRUE)



A fitted 'DistributionModel' object from which limited factors are to be identified.


Should the result be plotted? (Default: TRUE).


A terra object of the most important variable for a given grid cell.


  • Elith, J., Kearney, M. and Phillips, S. (2010), The art of modelling range-shifting species. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 1: 330-342. doi: 10.1111/j.2041-210X.2010.00036.x


if (FALSE) {
o <- limiting(fit)